In northern Australia, traditional techniques used to detect aquatic species can be difficult, labour-intensive and expensive due to factors such as remoteness, large scales, limited and variable site access, and hazards such as crocodiles. To support sustainable development in the region, we need to better understand, and keep track of, the health of our rivers, creeks and waterholes and the plants and animals that live in them. A method that allows managers and researchers to overcome many of these challenges would therefore be greatly beneficial.
What is environmental DNA (eDNA)?
eDNA is DNA that has been released by an animal into its aquatic environment, via faeces, hair, urine, skin, sperm or eggs. This DNA only lasts a short time in the environment before it is broken down. Water, sediment or soil samples taken from waterways contain this DNA and so will give information about which species are present in that environment without having to catch the target animal.
How does the project eDNA method work?
The eDNA method for this project uses genetic primers or probes that provide unique genetic identifiers for particular species, to amplify DNA codes from a water or sediment sample. DNA extracted from samples is matched against the primer or probe for that species. For example we can identify if a species of turtle at any life stage is present in a body of water by analysing the eDNA material in a water sample from that location. In other words, surveying an aquatic field site may be as easy as collecting a water sample.
Analysing environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new technology which detects the presence of DNA from aquatic species in small water samples. The technique has a number of advantages over traditional monitoring, including:
This project is developing eDNA technology and trial field programs for an array of northern Australian aquatic species of conservation and management significance. It aims to significantly improve the efficacy of field surveys and monitoring, hence providing a cost-effective tool to dramatically improve our knowledge of aquatic biodiversity in northern Australia. The information generated from this study can be used to inform planning processes, impact assessments and development decisions.
Project activities include:
The last point is critical for determining how eDNA monitoring could be rolled out in northern Australia and which species and situations it’s best suited for.
Planned outputs from this project include:
This research applies across the Northern Hub region.
Kwong, S.L.T., Villacorta-Rath, C., Doyle, J. et al. Quantifying shedding and degradation rates of environmental DNA (eDNA) from Pacific crown-of-thorns seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris). Mar Biol 168, 85 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-021-03896-x
Cooper, M.K., Huerlimann, R, Edmunds, RC, Budd, A.M., Le Port A., Kyne, P.M., Jerry, D.R., Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2021. Improved detection sensitivity using an optimal eDNA preservation and extraction workflow and its application to threatened sawfishes. Aquatic Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst. 2021; 1– 18. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3591
Edmunds R.C., Burrows D. 2020. Got Glycogen?: Development and Multispecies Validation of the Novel Preserve, Precipitate, Lyse, Precipitate, Purify (PPLPP) Workflow for Environmental DNA Extraction from Longmire's Preserved Water Samples. J Biomol Tech. 2020 Dec;31(4):125-150. doi: 10.7171/jbt.20-3104-003. PMID: 33100918; PMCID: PMC7566611.
Villacorta‐Rath, C, Adekunle, AI, Edmunds, RC, Strugnell, JM, Schwarzkopf, L, & Burrows, D. (2020). Can environmental DNA be used to detect first arrivals of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, into novel locations?. Environmental DNA. 2020; 00: 1– 12. https://doi.org/10.1002/edn3.114
Huerlimann, R., Cooper, M.K., Edmunds, R.C., Villacorta‐Rath, C., Le Port, A., Robson, H.L.A., Strugnell, J.M., Burrows, D. and Jerry, D.R. (2020), Enhancing tropical conservation and ecology research with aquatic environmental DNA methods: an introduction for non‐environmental DNA specialists. Anim Conserv. doi:10.1111/acv.12583
The project is led by Professors Damien Burrows and Dean Jerry from James Cook University (JCU). They are being assisted by other researchers at JCU, The University of Western Australia, Charles Darwin University, Griffith University and CSIRO.
This project is due for completion in June 2021.
Damien Burrows, James Cook University
(07) 4781 4262